The global city model and the change of the occupational and social

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Download flyer. Description Contents Preview The pivotal nodes in the world city network are global citiescities of supreme strategic value in global economy and politics, science and technology, culture, and society. Global Cities: Past, Present and Future explores the evolution of global citiestheir formation, rise, development and tendencies. This book summarizes and interprets global tendencies and also puts forward a theoretical framework that will help researchers understand these cities better.

It also makes a compelling case for understanding every city in terms of evolutionary dynamics. The first eight chapters of the book discuss the ontology of global city evolution and patterns, forms and trends of development. The last two chapters study the case of Shanghai, which aims to build itself into an important global city by This case study illustrates the shaping of a new type of global city that demonstrates new characteristics of the globalized space.

the global city model and the change of the occupational and social

Preview this book. Select a Purchasing Option Hardcover. ISBN: Each phase in the long history of the world economy raises specific questions about the particular conditions that make it possible. One of the key properties of the current phase is the ascendance of information technologies and the associated increase in the mobility and liquidity of capital.

There have long been cross-border economic processes—flows of capital, labor, goods, raw materials, and tourists. But to a large extent these took place within the inter-state system, where the key articulators were national states. The international economic system was ensconced largely in this inter-state system. This has changed rather dramatically over the last decade as a result of privatization, deregulation, the opening up of national economies to foreign firms, and the growing participation of national economic actors in global markets.

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It is in this context that we see a rescaling of what are the strategic territories that articulate the new system. With the partial unbundling or at least weakening of the national as a spatial unit due to privatization and deregulation and the associated strengthening of globalization, come conditions for the ascendance of other spatial units or scales.

Among these are the sub-national, notably cities and regions; cross-border regions encompassing two or more sub-national entities; and supra-national entities, i. The dynamics and processes that get terrritorialized at these diverse scales can in principle be regional, national or global. I locate the emergence of global cities in this context and against this range of instantiations of strategic scales and spatial units Sassen ; a. In the case of global cities, the dynamics and processes that get territorialized are global.

Here I examine the general conceptual and empirical elements that can be applied to a large number of very diverse cities, each with its own empirical specificities. The globalization of economic activity entails a new type of organizational structure. To capture this theoretically and empirically requires, correspondingly, a new type of conceptual architecture. The activity of naming these elements is part of the conceptual work. Thus choosing how to name a configuration has its own substantive rationality.

When I first chose to use global cityI did so knowingly—it was an attempt to name a difference: the specificity of the global as it gets structured in the contemporary period. I did not chose the obvious alternative, world city, because it had precisely the opposite attribute: it referred to a type of city that we have seen over the centuries e.

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This is partly an empirical question; further, as the global economy expands and incorporates additional cities into the various networks, it is quite possible that the answer to that particular question will vary. Thus, the fact that Miami has developed global city functions beginning in the late s does not make it a world city in that older sense of the term. There are seven hypotheses through which I organized the data and the theorization of the global city model.Instructors: Due to the COVID pandemic and in support of your transition to online learning, requests for complimentary review copies of our textbooks will be fulfilled through our eBooks partner, VitalSource.

By providing you with a digital review copy of the requested textbook swe can ensure you have expedited access to our content. If you require special assistance, please contact us at ext. Should you need additional information or have questions regarding the HEOA information provided for this title, including what is new to this edition, please email sageheoa sagepub. Please include your name, contact information, and the name of the title for which you would like more information.

For assistance with your order: Please email us at textsales sagepub. Skip to main content. Thank you for your patience and we apologise for the inconvenience. Expedited access to textbooks and digital content Instructors: Due to the COVID pandemic and in support of your transition to online learning, requests for complimentary review copies of our textbooks will be fulfilled through our eBooks partner, VitalSource.

Volume: Series: Urban Affairs Annual Reviews. Download flyer. Description Contents Preview "Cities in a Global Society is an impressive collection of essays focused on an important global redefinition. In essay after essay, this important volume makes clear a simple idea: That the culture, environment and economy of cities are increasingly influenced by forces well beyond the end of Main Street.

The editors and contributors to this fascinating and timely volume believe that cities must begin to assess their roles in a global society and establish their strategic position and comparative advantage in the global marketplace. A wide range of essays by noted international scholars shows how national urban policies tend to be reactive, driven by problems rather than by opportunities, consequently reinforcing the passive nature of cities and their dependency on national initiatives.

The diversity of their perspectives, analyses, observations, and insights helps to identify and define critical issues that cities are beginning to address as they become more internationally oriented. After first examining the role of cities in society, the contributors present several perspectives on a city futures management model and review strategies for developing global cities. This stimulating volume offers a wide range of innovative responses to these new challenges and will be useful to professionals and students in urban studies, economics, development studies, anthropology, international relations, future studies, political science, political theory, and sociology.

R V Knight. Redefining Cities. Their Role in the Global Economy. Cases of Montreal and Baltimore.Early cities arose in a number of regions, and are thought to have developed for reasons of agricultural productivity and economic scale. Summarize the various beginnings of cities, from centers of agriculture to areas of protection, and the factors they need to be successful.

Early cities developed in a number of regions, from Mesopotamia to Asia to the Americas. Mesopotamian cities included Eridu, Uruk, and Ur. Early cities also arose in the Indus Valley and ancient China. Among the early Old World cities, one of the largest was Mohenjo-daro, located in the Indus Valley present-day Pakistan ; it existed from about BCE, and had a population of 50, or more.

Ancient cities were notable for their geographical diversity, as well as their diversity in form and function. Theories that attempt to explain ancient urbanism by a single factor, such as economic benefit, fail to capture the range of variation documented by archaeologists.

Excavations at early urban sites show that some cities were sparsely populated political capitals, others were trade centers, and still other cities had a primarily religious focus.

the global city model and the change of the occupational and social

Some cities had large dense populations, whereas others carried out urban activities in the realms of politics or religion without having large associated populations. Some ancient cities grew to be powerful capital cities and centers of commerce and industry, situated at the centers of growing ancient empires.

Examples include Alexandria and Antioch of the Hellenistic civilization, Carthage, and ancient Rome and its eastern successor, Constantinople later Istanbul. Why did cities form in the first place? There is insufficient evidence to assert what conditions gave rise to the first cities, but some theorists have speculated on what they consider pre-conditions and basic mechanisms that could explain the rise of cities.

Agriculture is believed to be a pre-requisite for cities, which help preserve surplus production and create economies of scale.

the global city model and the change of the occupational and social

The conventional view holds that cities first formed after the Neolithic Revolution, with the spread of agriculture. The advent of farming encouraged hunter-gatherers to abandon nomadic lifestyles and settle near others who lived by agricultural production.

Agriculture yielded more food, which made denser human populations possible, thereby supporting city development. Farming led to dense, settled populations, and food surpluses that required storage and could facilitate trade.

These conditions seem to be important prerequisites for city life. Many theorists hypothesize that agriculture preceded the development of cities and led to their growth. A good environment and strong social organization are two necessities for the formation of a successful city. A good environment includes clean water and a favorable climate for growing crops and agriculture.

A strong sense of social organization helps a newly formed city work together in times of need, and it allows people to develop various functions to assist in the future development of the city for example, farmer or merchant.

Without these two common features, as well as advanced agricultural technology, a newly formed city is not likely to succeed. Cities may have held other advantages, too. For example, cities reduced transport costs for goods, people, and ideas by bringing them all together in one spot. By reducing these transaction costs, cities contributed to worker productivity. Finally, cities likely performed the essential function of providing protection for people and the valuable things they were beginning to accumulate.

Some theorists hypothesize that people may have come together to form cities as a form of protection against marauding barbarian armies. Preindustrial cities had important political and economic functions and evolved to become well-defined political units.This article introduces some key labor, economic, and social policies that historically and currently impact occupational health disparities in the United States.

We conducted a broad review of the peer-reviewed and gray literature on the effects of social, economic, and labor policies on occupational health disparities. Local and state initiatives, such as living wage laws and community benefit agreements, as well as multiagency law enforcement contribute to reducing occupational health disparities.

There is a need to build coalitions and collaborations to command the resources necessary to identify, and then reduce and eliminate occupational disparities by establishing healthy, safe, and just work for all.

On March 25,the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory took the lives of garment workers—most of whom were young, immigrant women. The US Bureau of Labor Statistics BLS began collecting information about industrial accidents inbut it was not until the late s that the BLS implemented a uniform record keeping system to collect national work injury data [ Bureau of Labor Statistics, a ].

Created during periods of mass industrial production in the United States, these and other labor protections were predominantly focused on regulating large scale, factory-type workplaces and often involved unions as the negotiating force with employers [ Excluded Workers Congress EWC et al. Following the triangle disaster, stronger government oversight and unionized workplaces led to improved wages, safer work environments, and reduced occupational injuries and fatalities for many workers [ Mishel and Walters, ; Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHAb ].

Still, by the s, injury rates remained high in many industries and state worker protection regulations were weak and inconsistent. Although these and other policies have contributed to a decline in work-related injuries and fatalities in the United States, disparities in worker health and safety continue to widen.

Global Cities: Economy

Over the past half century, major shifts in political and economic power have dramatically changed the work environment for workers in the United States and internationally. Today, a significant number of workers are excluded either in policy or in practice from labor protections provided to other workers [ Bernhardt et al.

Unregulated and unsafe workplaces worsen health disparities [ Murray, ; Lipscomb et al. These economic trends and labor practices challenge the relevance, capacity, and impact of the labor protections established in the s and s to protect twenty-first century workers [ Employment Conditions Knowledge Network EMCONET; Bernhardt et al.

This article discusses key policies and laws to protect workers and improve work-place safety and health, details barriers and gaps that weaken worker protections, describes research examining the impact of laws and policies on occupational health disparities, and reviews efforts at the state and local levels to enact laws and policies to address these gaps and barriers.

Table I provides a summary of key laws and policies. We conducted an extensive literature review of peer-reviewed articles published in journals that cover topics ranging from occupational medicine, public health, health policy, labor sociology and economics, to immigrant health.

To find articles that address the effects of labor, economic, and social policies on occupational health disparities we used the following search terms: occupational disparity iesoccupational inequality iesoccupational health inequity iesworker health inequality, labor inequality, workforce inequality iesemployment inequality, employment disparity, social class inequality iessocial class disparity iesworkforce disparity, workplace disparities, social disparity ieseconomic inequality, socioeconomic inequality iessocioeconomic disparity iesworker compensation, and welfare inequality.

After reviewing dozens of abstracts of the articles found in relevant databases, such as PubMed and NIOSHTIC, we selected and read all of those that matched the main scope of our paper. However, given the multi-disciplinary nature of the topic and the limited number of articles selected, we decided to review the gray literature on social, economic, and labor policy issues. We complemented the peer-reviewed literature with reports produced by non-profit organizations, think tanks known to the authors, and material available in Internet websites of government agencies.

Federal agencies are required to establish their own health and safety programs, but OSHA does not have enforcement authority, except in the Postal Service. In addition, there are currently 22 states and jurisdictions operating complete state plans covering both the private sector and state and local government employees and 5—Connecticut, Illinois, New Jersey, New York and the Virgin Islands—which cover public employees only [ OSHA, ].

Income is broadly regarded as an important social determinant of health [ Lipscomb et al. The most important law regulating wage and hours conditions in the United States is the Federal Labor Standard Act FLSA [ United States Congress, ], which was a regulatory response to increasingly dangerous working conditions for adults and children in industrial settings.

Employers are required to pay covered nonexempt workers at or above the federal minimum wage, and not less than time and one-half their regular rates of pay for hours worked over 40 in a workweek. More than million workers are covered by this Act; however, there are notable exceptions. Standards for child labor are promulgated under FLSA and generally apply to employers who hire anyone under age 18 in non-agricultural jobs.

Regulations for youth employed in agriculture were enacted inbut are less protective than for youth employed in non-agricultural settings [ Miller, ]. Children as young as 12 years of age can legally work and perform far more dangerous activities in agriculture than they can in non-agricultural settings [ Miller, ]. Seventeen states have established minimum wages higher than the federal. Minimum wage laws apply to full or part-time workers, regardless of how they are paid by the hour, piece rate, weekly pay, etc.

According to BLS, in4. Workers under age 25 represented only one-fifth of hourly paid workers, while they made up half of those paid the Federal minimum wage or less. A large multi-city survey of 4, low-wage workers in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York conducted by Bernhardt et al. Workers without a high-school degree or GED had higher minimum wage violation rates Several states either already restrict or are proposing restrictions to benefits based on immigration status, with benefits denied for those who work without authorization [ NELP, ].Not a MyNAP member yet?

Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. All the human causes of global environmental change happen through a subset of proximate causes, which directly alter aspects of the environment in ways that have global effects. We begin this chapter by outlining and illustrating an approach to accounting for the major proximate causes of global change, and then proceed to the more difficult issue of explaining them. Three case studies illustrate the various ways human actions can contribute to global change and provide concrete background for the more theoretical discussion that follows.

We have identified specific research needs throughout that discussion. We conclude by stating some principles that follow from current knowledge and some implications for research.

The Global City: Introducing a Concept

The important proximate human causes of global change are those with enough impact to significantly alter properties of the global environment of potential concern to humanity. The global environmental properties now of greatest concern include the radiative balance of the earth, the number of living species, and the influx of ultraviolet UV-B radiation to the earth's surface see also National Research Council, b.

In the future, however, the properties of concern to humanity are likely to change—ultra-violet radiation, after all, has been of global concern only since the s. Consequently, researchers need a general system for. This section describes an accounting system that can help to perform the task and illustrates it with a rough and partial accounting of the human causes of global climate change.

A useful accounting system for the human causes of global change has a tree structure in which properties of the global environment are linked to the major human activities that alter them, and in which the activities are divided in turn into their constituent parts or influences.

Such an accounting system is helpful for social science because, by beginning with variables known to be important to global environmental change, it anchors the study of human activities to the natural environment and imposes a criterion of impact on the consideration of research directions see also Clark, This is important because it can direct the attention of social scientists to the study of the activities with strong impacts on global change.

Because the connections between global environmental change and the concepts of social science are rarely obvious, social scientists who begin with important concepts in their fields have often directed their attention to low-impact human activities see Stern and Oskamp,for elaboration. An analysis anchored in the critical physical or biological phenomena can identify research traditions whose relevance to the study of environmental change might otherwise be overlooked.

For example, an examination of the actors and decisions with the greatest impact on energy use, air pollution, and solid waste generation showed that, by an impact criterion, studies of the determinants of daily behavior had much less potential to yield useful knowledge than studies of household and corporate investment decisions or of organizational routines in the context of energy use and waste management Stem and Gardner, a,b.

Theories and methods existed for each subject matter in relevant disciplines such as psychology and sociology, but much of the research attention had been misdirected. The idea of tree-structured accounting can be illustrated by the following sketch of a tree describing the causes of global climate change.

The chief environmental property of concern is the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The major anthropogenic. If the trunk of the tree represents the greenhouse gas-producing effect of all human activities, the limbs can represent the contributing greenhouse gases. Table presents the limbs during two different time periods and a projection for a future period. Both natural processes and human activities result in emissions of greenhouse gases. For instance, carbon dioxide is emitted by respiration of animals and plants, burning of biomass, burning of fossil fuels, and so forth.

If each limb of the tree represents human contributions to global emissions of a greenhouse gas, the branches off the limbs can represent the major anthropogenic sources of a gas, that is, the major categories of human activity that release it. These are proximate human causes of climate change, and their impact is equal to their contribution of each greenhouse gas times the gas's radiative effect, integrated over time.

For the same emissions, the representation of impact will vary with the date to which the impact is projected. Tables and allocate emissions of the most important greenhouse gases during the late s to human activities.

Major human proximate causes, such as fossil fuel burning, are conducted by many actors and for many purposes: electricity generation, motorized transport, space conditioning, industrial process heat, and so forth.

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A tree branch, such as one representing fossil fuel burning, can be divided into twigs that represent these different actors or purposes, each of which acts as a subsidiary proximate cause, producing a proportion of the total emissions. It is possible to make such a division in numerous ways. Fossil fuel burning can be subdivided according to parts of the world countries, developed and less-developed world regions, etc.

Different methods may prove useful for different purposes. Table illustrates one way to allocate the carbon dioxide emitted from fossil fuel consumption to the major purposes end uses of those fuels. The tree structure can be elaborated further by dividing the subsidiary proximate causes defined at the previous level into their components. Such analysis is important for high-impact activities. These estimates are of "radiative forcing" by greenhouse gases, that is, the change they produce in the earth's radiative balance that in turn changes global temperature and climate.

Radiative forcing is calculated from current gas concentrations in the atmosphere, which include gases remaining in the atmosphere from all emissions since the beginning of the industrial era, set here at Each year, we report on our ESG activities and performance. Corbat, CEO.

Researching Inequality in the Global City

At Citi, we take action to effect positive and meaningful change in our communities. Included here are examples of our impact in We focus on issues that matter to our employees, clients, investors and communities. While we recognize that many of the biggest societal challenges are part of a significant economic and social transition that will take years — in some cases generations — to come to fruition, our commitment to creating positive impact is unwavering.

The widening income gap in the U. One profound implication of the widening income divide is evident in our polarized politics. Compromise is seen as a sign of weakness, or worse, disloyalty. I worry greatly about this dynamic, and believe there is an opportunity for Citi and others in the private sector to lead a more constructive dialogue and work toward solutions.

How can we use our voice to help drive dialogue toward solutions? Is Citi walking the talk — are we doing the right things within our own firm? The short answer to all three of these questions continues to be the same: that we can and should do more. Our mission of enabling growth and economic progress will never be complete, but year after year, my colleagues and our firm keep pushing ourselves in the right direction.

Internally, we have taken steps to mirror many of the changes we need to make as a society. In this report, you will find no shortage of big challenges — local, national, regional and global — described in daunting detail. You will also find specific examples of the creative solutions my Citi colleagues are continuously conceiving with our clients and communities to address them.

Those challenges range from climate change, to the urgent need for exponentially more infrastructure investment globally, to an affordable housing crisis in the U. That gap is a primary contributor to the economic inequality I cited above that pervades our society and our politics.

At Citi, we have learned that there are times when we need to take a stand when our values and mission are on the line. We were the first bank to announce a Commercial Firearms Policy in the U. We were the first firm to disclose our unadjusted pay gaps between women and men globally, and between minorities and non-minorities in the U.

We have also taken the UN Sustainable Development Goals as guideposts and inspirations to continue to do more — as much as we can. The last goal, 17 related to partnerships, is at the heart of everything we do. We know no one person, company, nation, or community can do enough alone. Please be advised that this site is not optimized for use with Microsoft Internet Explorer 6. A Message From Our CEO "Our health, our economic success and our environment are all inextricably linked, which is why, despite the current challenges, we must sustain our efforts to drive positive social and environmental impact around the world.

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Highlights At Citi, we take action to effect positive and meaningful change in our communities.


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